LVOVSKY, Grigory Fyodorovich (b. 1830, Kishinev, Moldavia; d. 1894, St. Petersburg) — educated at Kishinev Theological Seminary, where he conducted the seminary choir and the local cathedral choir. Sent to St. Petersburg to further his musical studies, particularly in violin, for which he had a special gift, Lvovsky received the precentors’ diploma of the Imperial Court Chapel. After returning to Kishinev for three years, he was summoned in 1856 to St. Petersburg to assume the post of precentor at the St. Alexander Nevsky Lavra, and shortly thereafter, a similar post at St. Isaac’s Cathedral, which was consecrated in 1858. He occupied these two posts—among the most prestigious in all Russia—until his death. As a composer, Lvovsky studied theory and counterpoint with Nikolai Zaremba, professor of theory at St. Petersburg Conservatory, who also taught Tchaikovsky. Lvovsky was one of the pioneers in the area of chant harmonization: of his 100-plus works for the Orthodox liturgy, most are based on pre-existing chants. He tends to treat the chant strictly, preserving its melody and modal character intact, while surrounding it with contrapuntal lines that result in consonant harmony and frequent Renaisaance-style suspensions and cadences.