Archpriest Pyotr Turchaninov (1779-1856)
TURCHANINOV, Archpriest Pyotr Ivanovich (b. 20 November [1 December]1779, Kiev; d. 16  1856, St. Petersburg) — from the age of eight sang in General Levanidov’s choir; was taken to St. Petersburg to study with Sarti, but in 1791 returned to Kiev, where he completed his musical education under Vedel. In 1804 was appointed precentor of the Metropolitan’s Choir in St. Petersburg; also conducted private choirs. In 1827 was invited to serve as teacher of singing in the Imperial Court Chapel, but was soon released. Turchaninov composed more than 67 sacred works; of these more than two thirds are arrangements of various chants. Turchaninov is the ﬁrst composer of the 19th century who devoted so much attention to chant. Many of his works, approved in 1831 by the Holy Synod and published in 1842, received wide dissemination in church musical practice. In later years his arrangements were criticized because he chromatically altered the chant melody, when the harmony required it, and also because he attempted to force the chants into a regular meter; some of his arrangements, however, e.g., the Theotokia dogmatica, are written in free rhythm.